Metal heat treatment is one of the important technology in mechanical manufacturing, compared with other processing technology, heat treatment generally does not change the shape of the workpiece and the chemical composition of the whole, but by changing the workpiece internal microstructure, or change the surface chemical composition, or improve the use performance of workpiece.
Its characteristic is to improve the immanent quality of workpiece, which generally is not visible to the naked eye can see.
Heat treatment process generally includes three heating, heat preservation, cooling process, sometimes only two heating and cooling process.
The process to connect to each other, completely.
Metal heat treatment process can be divided into the overall local heat treatment and chemical heat treatment, surface heat treatment, heat treatment, etc.
Integral heat treatment the overall heat treatment is heated for artifacts as a whole, and then cooling at the appropriate speed, to change its overall mechanical properties of metal heat treatment process.
Steel overall roughly annealing heat treatment, the four basic normalizing, quenching and tempering process.
Annealing, normalizing, quenching and tempering heat treatment of the whole & other;
Four fire & throughout;
, closely related to the quenching and tempering, always, be short of one cannot.
Annealing: is the workpiece of heating to proper temperature, according to the material and workpiece size in different heat preservation time, and then slowly cooling, the purpose is to make the metal internal organization at or near equilibrium state and obtain good process performance and use of performance, or for further quenching organization.
Is the fire: it is after the workpiece heated to proper temperature cooling in the air, the effect of normalizing and annealing are similar, just get the organization more thin, often used to improve the cutting performance of low carbon materials, also sometimes used for low requirements for some parts as the final heat treatment.
After quenching: is the workpiece heat insulation, water, oil or other inorganic salts, organic aqueous solution fast cooling quenching cooling medium.
Hardened steel after quenching, but at the same time become fragile.
Tempering: in order to reduce the brittleness of steel after quenching of steel is higher than the room temperature and under 650 ℃ at some stage in the proper temperature for a long time of heat preservation, again for cooling.
Four fire & throughout;
With the different methods of heating temperature and cooling, and developed different heat treatment process.
In order to obtain a certain amount of strength and toughness, combine quenching and high temperature tempering process, known as conditioning.
Some alloy after quenching formation of supersaturated solid solution, put it at room temperature or slightly higher under proper temperature to keep a long time, in order to improve the hardness and strength of the alloy or electrical magnetic, etc.
The heat treatment process called aging treatment.
The pressure deformation and heat treatment processing effective and combined closely, obtain good strength and toughness of components with method called thermomechanical treatment;
In negative pressure or vacuum atmosphere heat treatment is called vacuum heat treatment, it can not only make the workpiece no oxidation, no decarburization, keeping the surface is bright and clean after processing, improve the performance of the workpiece can also lead to infiltration agent for chemical heat treatment.
Surface heat treatment heating workpiece surface only, in order to change the surface mechanical properties of metal heat treatment process.
For heating the workpiece surface and not only make excessive internal heat into the workpiece, using the heat source must have a high energy density, the larger on unit area of the workpiece and the heat, or local can short the surface layers of components or instantaneous at high temperature.
The main method of surface heat treatment has the flame hardening and induction heating heat treatment, the common source of heat oxygen acetylene and oxygen propane flame, induced current, laser and electron beam, etc.
By changing the chemical heat treatment of workpiece surface chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal heat treatment process.
The chemical heat treatment and surface heat treatment difference is that the latter has changed the chemical composition of workpiece surface.
Chemical heat treatment is artifacts in a medium containing carbon, nitrogen and other alloying elements (
Gas, liquid and solid)
In heating, heat preservation for a long time, so that the workpiece surface infiltration of carbon, nitrogen, boron and chromium element.
After the infiltration of elements, sometimes even on other heat treatment such as quenching and tempering.
Chemical heat treatment of the main methods of carburizing, nitriding, metallic cementation.
Heat treatment is the mechanical parts and one of the important working procedure in process of mould manufacturing.
It can control the properties of the workpiece, such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, magnetic, etc.
Can also improve the organization and the stress state of blank, for all kinds of cold and hot working.
Such as white cast
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after annealing treatment for a long time can get the malleable iron, improve plasticity;
The service life of the gear are the correct heat treatment process, can be better than without heat treatment of gear exponentially or dozens of times to improve;
In addition, the low price of carbon steel through the infiltration of some alloying elements will have a certain price, performance of alloy steel, can replace some heat resistant steel, stainless steel;
Workers die is almost all need after heat treatment before use.
The difference between annealing and tempering annealing and tempering difference lies in: (
Say simply, annealing is not hardness, temper also retain a certain hardness)
Tempering: high temperature tempering organization for tempering sorbite.
Tempering is generally not used alone, in part tempering after quenching, main purpose is to eliminate the quenching stress, get the requirements of the organization, according to the different tempering temperature tempering is divided into low, moderate in high temperature tempering.
Get tempered martensite, troostite and sorbite.
Nowadays, it is very common for us to utilise in cast iron company
. And the quality of is decisive to production efficiency.
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